In some cases, patients with deep pockets may be candidates for bone regeneration surgeries known as guided tissue regeneration (GTR) and bone grafting. These methods, performed alone or in combination, are employed to repair underlying bone defects caused by periodontal disease so that a tooth, or set of teeth, gain more support and stability. These procedures also reduce pocketing.
With these procedures, a traditional gum flap is performed followed by cleaning of the area (see pocket reduction surgery). After this step a bone graft may be placed into the bone defect or an artificial membrane may be placed over the bone defect (GTR) or both may be performed (combination therapy). This keeps overlying gum tissue from growing back into the bone defect. After placement of these materials, gum tissue is sutured back in place.